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Introduction of raw materials and fermentation process of biogas

Introduction of raw materials and fermentation process of biogas


Biogas, as the name suggests, is the gas in the swamp, which is a mixed gas produced by the fermentation of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. People often see that in swamps, sewage ditches or manure tanks, there are bubbles coming out. If we strike a match, we can ignite it. This is the naturally occurring biogas in nature. Since this gas was first discovered in swamps, it is called biogas. Human and livestock manure, straw, sewage and other organic matter are fermented in a closed biogas tank under anaerobic (no oxygen) conditions to produce biogas. Biogas is a mixed gas that can be burned. Biogas is a combustible gas produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter by microorganisms. Biogas is a mixture of various gases, generally containing 50-70% methane, and the rest is carbon dioxide and a small amount of nitrogen, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. Its characteristics are similar to those of natural gas.

Biogas fermentation tank

1. Raw materials for biogas production

Biogas is prepared from organic matter, and the required raw materials are diverse. From livestock manure, crop waste, vegetable oil to organic waste collected by households, all can be used as raw materials for biogas preparation, such as food residues (pomace, washing Bowl of water, residues from grease separation), vegetable stems and leaves in retail markets, food scraps or weeds cut out, and organic waste from municipal waste. The fermentation of residual substances (called combined fermentation) provides the possibility of recycling and reducing the emission of harmful substances, and the whole process is very hygienic. In addition to traditional materials, due to improved fermentation methods, grass can also be used to ferment to produce biogas. The clean energy obtained from grassland is convenient for transportation and greatly reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The fermentation of weeds can provide an economical, environmentally friendly, and efficient method for future energy supply. In fact, all crushed biomass can be used to produce biogas. Their main components are: sugars, proteins, fats, and cellulose. And hemicellulose, wood that contains a lot of lignin is not suitable for the production of biogas.

2. The anaerobic fermentation process of biogas

Biogas is produced by the decomposition of a variety of microorganisms (collectively referred to as biogas bacteria) under the conditions of isolating the air and maintaining certain moisture, temperature, and pH. The process by which biogas bacteria decompose organic matter to produce biogas is called biogas fermentation. This is the basic principle of biogas production, namely the anaerobic mechanism. Two conditions must be met for artificial biogas production: first, it must have a strict anaerobic environment; second, it must have sufficient fermentation raw materials and sufficient biogas inoculum, and It has suitable fermentation concentration, temperature and pH. The biochemical process of fermentation can be roughly divided into three stages:

The first stage (liquefaction stage): The fermentative bacteria group uses the extracellular enzymes it secretes to decompose macromolecular organic matter such as poultry manure, crop straw, and soy product processing wastewater into water-soluble monosaccharides and amino acids , Glycerin and fatty acid and other small molecule compounds.

The second stage (acid production stage): This stage is the fermentative bacteria decompose small molecule compounds into acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, hydrogen and carbon dioxide, etc., and then convert them into methanogens by hydrogen-producing acetogenic bacteria Available acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

The third stage (methan production stage): the methanogenic bacteria group uses the formic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon dioxide small molecule compounds decomposed and transformed by the above three non-methane-producing bacteria groups to generate methane. The three stages of biogas fermentation are interdependent and continuous, and maintain dynamic balance. In the initial stage of biogas fermentation, the first and second stages are the main functions, and there is also the third stage. In the later stage of biogas fermentation, the effects of three stages are carried out simultaneously. After a certain period of time, a certain dynamic balance is maintained to continue normal gas production.

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